12     War Continues (1945-1949)                      


Primary Resources 


Document 12.1

Excerpt from China’s Destiny by Chiang Kai-shek, 1943

Document 12.2

Excerpt from “Manifesto of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army” by Mao Zedong, 1947 


Document 12.3


Excerpt from General George Marshall’s “Personal Statement by the Special Representative of the President,” 1947 

Document 12.4

Letter to the Editor by Ding Keshan, March 30, 1948 


Document 12.5


Excerpts from a survey sponsored by the North American Chinese Students Christian Association, 1948

Document 12.6

“Dead Water,” a poem by Wen Yiduo, 1928

Document 12.7

Excerpt from Wen Yiduo’s speech at the memorial service for Li Gongbu, 1946

Document 12.8

Woodblock prints by Li Hua, 1946–1948


Document 12.9


Excerpts from reports and writings related to land reform leading up to the founding of the People’s Republic of China, 1946–1948

Document 12.10

“The People’s Liberation Army Captures Nanjing,” a poem by Mao Zedong, 1949



Supplementary Resources 


Item 12.A

Further information and questions related to wood block prints (Activity 7)


Activity Websites


Activity 7

Introduction to the New Woodcut Movement



Suggested Resources




Birns, Jack. Assignment, Shanghai: Photographs on the Eve of Revolution. Ed. Carolyn Wakeman and Ken Light. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.


Chiang Kai-shek. China’s Destiny. Translated by Wang Chung-hui. New York: MacMillan, 1947.

Written in 1943, while China was still fighting the Japanese, this is Chiang’s vision for his country.


Mao Zedong. Selected Works of Mao Zedong. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1967.

Volume 4 covers the period of the Civil War. This series includes many interesting, provocative speeches and essays. Writings of Mao are also available online at http://marx2mao.com/Mao/Index.html.


Pepper, Suzanne. Civil War in China: The Political Struggle, 1945–1949. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.


Snow, Edgar. Red Star Over China. New York: Grove Press, 1993.

A U.S. journalist’s account of Chinese Communist movement and its leadership until the late 1930s. Originally published in 1937.


Spence, Jonathan D. Mao Zedong. New York: Viking, 1999.




China’s Communist Revolution, BBC News

An overview of China’s Communist government from 1949–1989.


Nixon’s China Game: U.S.-China Relations Timeline, 1945–1949, PBS

A timeline of Chinese domestic politics and foreign relations between China, the Soviet Union, and the United States from 1945–1949.



Information about Lu Xun and Chinese woodcut art of the early twentieth century that was used as a form of protest.




China, A Century of Revolution, Part 1: China in Revolution: 1911–1949 (120 mins; 1997 & 2007)

This documentary provides footage of the Republican Period and interviews with Chinese people who lived through this era.


Mao Tse Tung: China’s Peasant Emperor (50 mins; 2005)

Archival film and images of Mao’s life. 



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