7     The End of Imperial Rule                      



Primary Resources 


Document 7.1


Woodblock Print of Treaty of Shimonoseki negotiations (Courtesy of Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.)
Document 7.2
Excerpts from “Li Hongzhang Negotiates with Japan, 1895”
Document 7.3
Excerpts describing Emperor Guangxu and his 1898 reforms
Document 7.4
Excerpts describing the activities of the “Boxers” during the uprising, by Fei Qihao, 1900

Document 7.5


Excerpts from a letter written by missionary Nellie N. Russel to relatives in Chicago, describing the Boxer Uprising, 1900
Document 7.6
Interviews with individuals recalling the Shining Red Lanterns movement

Document 7.7a


Excerpts from the preface to China the Yellow Peril: At War With the World by J.Martin Miller, 1900
Document 7.7b-d
Photographs included in China the Yellow Peril: At War With the World, by J. Martin Miller, 1900
Document 7.8
Excerpts from “The Yellow Peril,” an essay by Jack London, 1904
Document 7.11
Excerpts from “The Revolutionary Army,” by Zou Rong, 1903
Document 7.12
Photograph of Sun Yat-sen’s mausoleum, Nanjing, 2006
Document 7.13
Sign describing Sun Yat-sen, 2006
Document 7.14
Excerpts from Emperor Puyi’s abdication, 1912


Supplementary Resources 


Item 7.A

Map showing the encroachment of foreign powers on Chinese territory in the late nineteenth century

Item 7.B

Chart Comparing Three Revolutionary Documents

Item 7.C

Guides to Clips from The Last Emperor 



Activity Websites


Activity 3

A political cartoon on the "carving up" of China by other nations.


Suggested Resources




Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi. From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi. Trans. W.J.F. Jenner. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

The autobiography of the last Qing emperor who came to the throne as a toddler.


Bergère, Marie-Claire. Sun Yat-sen. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.


Rowe, William T. China’s Last Empire: The Great Qing. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.


Silbey, David. The Boxer Rebellion and the Great Game in China. New York: Hill and Wang, 2012.




“En Chine: Le gâteau des Rois et…des Empereurs,” Bibliothèque Nationale de France

A French political cartoon from 1898 depicting China as a cake or pie being divided by Great Britain, Russia, France, and Japan.


Fei Ch’i-hao: The Boxer Rebellion, 1900, Internet Modern History Sourcebook

A Chinese account of the Boxer Uprising.


Yellow Promise / Yellow Peril: Foreign Postcards of the Russo-Japanese War (1905–1905), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Visualizing Cultures

Essays by John W. Dower and visual narratives and lessons about the relationship between China, Japan, and Russia in the early twentieth century.




The Last Emperor (162 mins; 1987)

This film poignantly captures the anachronism of a child-emperor coming to power in China in the early twentieth century and the subsequent political turmoil.




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